Artificial intelligence is a technology that has dramatically transformed the twenty-first century. Because AI is already a part of everyday life, I believe it is crucial that we understand the concept of artificial intelligence.
History of AI –
The concept of AI goes back to the classical ages The Greek Mythology the machines and mechanical men well thought of an example Talos.
Talos was a giant animated bronze warrior programmed to guard the island of Crete created by Hephaestus.
In 19th century – Alan Turing 1950 – Alan Turning published a landmark paper in which he speculated about the possibility of creating machines that think.
In 1951 – Game AI – Christopher Strachey wrote a checkers program and Dietrich Prinz wrote one for chess. This period is called Gain AI because lot of computer scientists developed programs
In 1956 – The birth of AI – John McCarthy first coined the term “Artificial Intelligence” in 1956 at the Dartmouth conference
In 1959 – (First AI Laboratory) – MIT AI Lab was first set up in 1959. The research on AI began.
In 1960 – (General Motors Robot) – First robot was introduced to the general motor assembly line.
In 1961 – First Chatbot – First chatbot called Eliza was introduced.
In 1997 – (IBM Deep Blue) IBM Deep Blue beats world champion Garry Kasparov in the game of chess.
In 2005 – Stanford racing team’s autonomous robotic car Stanley won the 2005 DARPA grand challenge.
In 2011 IBM’s question answering system, Watson, defeated the two greatest Jeopardy! champions, Brad Rutter and Ken Jenning.
The emergence of AI in the 1950’s we have seen exponential growth in potential AI have multiple domains such as machine learning, Deep learning, Natural languages, Neural Networks, processing as so on.
Let’s move on and understand what exactly artificial intelligence is. So, the term artificial intelligence was coined by John McCarthy in 1956. Defined the science and engineering of making intelligent machines.
In other words, AI is the development of computer systems that are capable of performing tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as decision making, object detection, solving complex problems and so on.
Stages of AI:
Narrow Artificial Intelligence:
Artificial Narrow Intelligence also known as weak AI; ANI is the stage of Artificial intelligence involving machines that can perform only a narrowly defined set of tasks. In this stage of AI, they don’t have any thinking ability; they will perform only predefined functions.
Examples of weak AI – Siri, Alexa, Alfa go, Sofia, self-driving cars and so on.
General Artificial Intelligence:
Artificial General Intelligence also known as strong AI is the stage in evolution of artificial intelligence where machines will process the ability to think and make decisions just like us humans. The strong AI considered by many scientists include Stephen Hawking quotes that development could spell the entire human race.
Super Artificial Intelligence:
Artificial Super Intelligence is currently seen as a hypothetical situation as defected moves and science fiction book you see a lot of moves shows that machines are taking over the world all of that Artificial super intelligence.
Types of AI:
Reactive Machine AI:
Reactive Machine AI includes machines that operate solely based on the present data, taking into account only the current situation. Reactive AI machines from the data to evaluate their future actions.
Example: Deep blue defeated world champion Garry Kasparov (1997) in chess.
Limited Memory AI:
Limited memory AI can make informed and improved decisions by studying the past data from its memory. Such as AI has a short lived or a temporary memory that can be used to store past experiences and hence evaluate future actions.
Example: Self driving cars use the data collected in the recent past to make immediate decisions.
Theory of Mind AI:
The theory of mind AI will focus mainly on emotional intelligence so that humans can better comprehended.
The self-Aware AI includes machines that have their own consciousness and become self-aware. This type of AI does not exist yet.
“AI is a fundamental risk to the existence of human civilization” – Elon Musk
Domains of AI:
- Machine Learning
- Deep Learning
- Expert systems
- Fuzzy Logic
Machine Learning is basically the science of getting machines to interpret processes and analyze the data to solve real world problems. Machine learning supervised and unsupervised in enforcement learning.
Deep Learning is the process of implementing neural networks on high dimensional data to gain insights and form solutions, basically logic behind in the face verification algorithms on Facebook it is the logic behind self-driving cars, virtual assistant and Alexa.
Then we have natural language processing first to science to draw insights from natural human languages and grow the businesses.
Example: Twitter and Amazon
Twitter uses NLP to filter out terrorizing words in the twitter
Amazon uses NLP to understand the consumer behavior and user experiences
Robotics is a branch of artificial intelligence which focuses on different branches and applications of robots. AI robots are artificial environments to produce results by taking some accountable actions.
Example: Sofia robot
Expert systems are AI based computer systems that learn and reciprocate the decision-making ability of human experts. Expert systems use IF/Then logics mentioned in order to solve any complex problems. They do not relay conventional proceeding programming.
Expert systems mainly used in information management seem to use virus detection, medical and hospital records and so on.
Fuzzy logic is computing approach that is based on principles degree of truth instead of
usual modern logic that we used which is basically Boolean logic. Fuzzy logic used in the medical field to solve complex problems which involve decision making is also used in automated gas systems in cars.
Thank you for reading.
K. Tarun Kumar (Digital Marketer)